Author: Seung Mi Oh (Kyunggi Girl’s High School, Korea, Grade 12)
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms that have been modified using genetic engineering methods. Although genetic engineering is a common and essential practice in biotechnology, its specific use in crops is controversial. The key steps involved in genetic engineering are identifying a trait of interest, isolating that trait, inserting that trait into a desired organism, and then propagating that organism. Methods for genetic manipulation have rapidly improved over the last century from simple selective growing, to inserting genes from one organism into another, to more recent methods of directly editing the genome.